Data Sources

All the data for the 2050 Index has been obtained from public sources. Listing them by category, the indicators used are:

DEMOGRAPHY

  1. Employment of those aged 65 and over as % of population of that age group, 2015: International Labour Office
  2. Public spending on pensions as a % of GDP, 2011: OECD
  3. Fertility rate (children born per adult woman), 2014: OECD
  4. Obesity rate, % of population, 2013, Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation
  5. Healthy life expectancy at birth, years, 2013, World Health Organisation

INNOVATION

  1. Triadic patents issued, per ‘000 population, 2013, OECD
  2. Research & Development spending, % of GDP, 2014, OECD
  3. Regulatory environment: Doing Business ranking, 2015, World Bank
  4. Broadband penetration, per 100 inhabitants, 2015, OECD

RESILIENCE

  1. Democracy index, 2015, Economist Intelligence Unit
  2. Property rights, 2016, from Economic Freedom Index, Heritage Foundation
  3. Corruption Perceptions Index, 2015, Transparency International
  4. Income inequality, change in Gini coefficient since 1990, 2013, World Bank
  5. Gross government debt, as % of GDP, 2015, IMF
  6. Household debt, as % of net household disposable income, 2014, IMF

KNOWLEDGE

  1. PISA score for high school education standards, 2012: OECD
  2. Tertiary education, % of population aged 25-34, 2015, OECD
  3. Productivity, GDP per hour worked, 2015 OECD
  4. Gender inequality, 2013, United Nations Human Development Index
  5. Press freedom index, 2015, Freedom House

OPENNESS

  1. Foreign Direct Investment stock, as % of GDP, 2015, OECD
  2. Trade (imports + exports of goods and services) as % of GDP, 2014, OECD
  3. Constraints on trade and capital flows, 2013, index from KOF Globalisation Index
  4. Foreign-born population as % of total, 2013, OECD
  5. International students as % of all students, 2013, UNESCO
The Data
    • Overall:
    • Demography:
    • Knowledge:
    • Innovation:
    • Openness:
    • Resilience:
    Demography
    Knowledge
    Innovation
    Openness
    Resilience

    Demography
    Knowledge
    Innovation
    Openness
    Resilience

    Demography
    Knowledge
    Innovation
    Openness
    Resilience